The Perfect Male Body

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In the first of a series of posts about the objectification of the “ideal” male body, Oliver Lee Bateman examines the life and times of fitness entrepreneur Joe Weider.

 

Owing to an @Schwarzenegger tweet that had been retweeted by a friend of mine, I learned that you will be able to stream Joe “The Master Blaster” Weider’s memorial online.  There’s even a countdown until that blessed event, although it’s unlikely you’ll be able to hold your breath as long as the late, gr8 Weider now can.  The man lived an almost impossibly extended life–93 years, far more than you or I or any other mere mortal can expect.  He had long since passed into legendary status, with his name (pronounced “Wee-der,” not “Why-der,” although I favored the latter version until a few years ago) plastered across nearly every piece of third-rate exercise equipment ever sold at your friendly neighborhood K-Mart.

This isn’t going to be another matter-of-fact summary of the Master Blaster’s bona fides.  The story of Joe Weider’s rise from first-generation Jewish immigrant anonymity in Montreal to exercise mogul-dom has been documented extensively elsewhere, most notably in the Weider brothers’ autobiography Brothers of Iron, which is filled with the sort of selective memories and self-aggrandizing anecdotes you’d expect in such a source, as well as in  Muscle, Smoke & MirrorsRandy Roach’s sprawling, shambolic weightlifting history. Instead, I’d like to address Weider’s invaluable contribution to the late 20th-century problematization of the male body.

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As I mentioned in an earlier post about the cartoonish bodies of 1980s WWE wrestlers, I harbored an intense desire to reach epic, Ted Arcidi-esque proportions.  This was a ludicrous and implausible objective, but it arose out of painful experience:  by cultivating such a carapace of hard muscle, I hoped to armor myself against the depredations of my father, a former star college athlete who bulked large (both literally and figuratively) in my life for a very long time.  This concept of muscularity-as-armor has been written about to great effect by feminist academic Susan Bordo and literary critic Samuel Fussell (Fussell’s book Muscle: Confessions of an Unlikely Bodybuilder, in which he describes his transition from feckless academic to competitive bodybuilder, is essential reading on this score), and I’ll discuss it in greater detail later in this series.  For now, however, it is sufficient to note that this desire brought me into contact with the manifold works of Joe Weider.

For the young, aimless meathead in the early 90s, Weider was unavoidable.  He was the “trainer of champions” (of beauty pageants that he sponsored and judged).  He was the “father of bodybuilding” (by which one means the person who popularized and, I would later learn, degraded an activity that actually had its roots in late 19th century gymnastics and strongman competitions).  He was the the “king of supplements” (most of which probably consisted of little more than flour and baking soda).  My first set of weightlifting gloves bore his name, although I had, as mentioned previously, no idea how to pronounce it (also, no one anywhere should ever, EVER use weightlifting gloves for any reason besides looking cool in a co-starring role opposite the Rock).  Some of the first and most worthless fitness advice that I received came from his horrifying glossy magazines.  I purchased a set of rinky-dink Weider dumbbells, which I kept under my bed and used to perform the hundreds of bicep curls recommended in the aforementioned glossy magazines.

I did all of this, contributing tiny amounts of my allowance to the Weider coffers, without realizing the Master Blaster’s pernicious influence on the American male writ large.  As I continued my fruitless quest to construct a body that would be heard long before it was ever seen, I looked past the freakish performance-enhancing drug creations that festooned the nigh-pornographic pages of FLEX.  The only other male body that I cared about–really, the only body I cared about at all during this period–was my father’s immense frame.  Not until years later, after I had long since abandoned my quest for superhuman size and begun focusing on general fitness, would I recognize the ramifications of Weider’s lifelong effort to enrich himself at the expense of others.

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Like fellow charlatan/businessman/con artist Vince McMahon, Joe Weider conquered a disorganized niche sport.  Arising in opposition to 1930s-era physical culture enthusiasts like York Barbell magnate Bob Hoffman and diminutive Sealtest muscleman Dan Lurie, the Weider brothers wrested control of the physique competitions that these fitness pioneers oversaw. Hoffman, who supervised the US Olympic weightlifting program during the most successful period in its history, staged his AAU “Mr. America” pageants as add-ons to strength shows and lifting competitions.  However, the popularity of these exhibitions exceeded that of the events preceding them, and, regardless of whether the pageants were held first or last, they invariably drew larger crowds than the athletic components of Hoffman’s AAU meets.

The Weiders, operating across the border in Canada, quickly recognized the potential inherent in such bodybuilding spectacles.  Even as Bob Hoffman and his supporters argued that one should “train for strength and form will follow,” Weider used his magazine Muscle Power to argue against the 3-day-a-week, 3-lift, 5 set by 5 rep routines favored by massive brutes like 300-pound strength champion Paul Anderson:

Let me tell you fellows, you’ll never become a [bodybuilding] champ with 3 workouts a week.  So, as far as I am concerned, none of them [Hoffman, Paul Anderson, et al.] knew what they were talking about. And those who advocate the same methods today are still back in the stone age of bodybuilding.  Right now, I am going to bury this stone age idea, this unscientific nonsense, the stick in the mud teachers of our sport have been propounding.  I’ve killed off more stupid bodybuilding ideas in the past few years than all the other instructors put together. Now I am going to debunk another. No champion, not a single Mr. America title winner, ever built his body working 3 times weekly.

The apotheosis of the Weider routine can be seen in Arnold Schwarzenegger’s ambitious but flawed Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding (which is almost as much of a Weider hagiography as the brothers’ own autobiography):  a rep-heavy, hours-long grind that is undoubtedly intended to be done in conjunction with a regimen of anabolic steroids of the sort that physician John Ziegler introduced into professional sports in the late 1950s.  There are merits to Weider’s method, and Weider himself, although never a good lifter in any conventional sense, employed it to good effect in the course of developing a lithe, sinewy body that enabled him to place competitively in a handful of 1950s physique pageants.  But, as is the case with the ill-trained but slick-talking sports guru Greg “Coach” Glassman and his periodization-free CrossFit methodology, much of what Weider endorsed in official organs like Muscle Power was utter bullshit.  Safer, more performance-oriented approaches to weightlifting, like those outlined by former powerlifters Mark Rippetoe and Jim Wendler, are in the tradition of Hoffman, Anderson, and shoulder press champion Bill Starr; they owe almost nothing to Weider’s work (though Wendler does concede that higher-than-average reps, in the 15-20 range, are useful for some assistance exercises), and, in the case of Rippetoe and his Starting Strength program, break violently with Glassman and CrossFit as well.

But this is altogether too much history, and very nearly beside the point.  What matters for our purposes is that Weider’s mantra of “train for form and strength will follow” would eventually win the day; he triumphed by separating the physique pageants from the athletic moorings that had grounded them in performative reality, and then took his act mainstream when Ziegler’s first-generation steroids came into widespread circulation during the 1960s, changing forever the look and shape of the pageant “champions” (i.e., the men that Weider picked to win, in the same way that Vince McMahon picked his John Cenas and Hulk Hogans) that Weider bragged about “training” (i.e., “juicing”). Whence we have had forced upon us, in turn, Reg Park, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Lee Haney, Ronnie Coleman, Jay Cutler, and now the shameless Kai Greene (that link is extremely NSFW and features an extremely disturbing method of “juicing”; please watch this video if you’re looking for a slightly more PG version of what that guy is all about).

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Was Joe Weider, who inspired a generation of young men to build first-class physiques, really such a bad guy?  A full answer to that requires a brief discussion of how the Master Blaster paid the bills back in the late 1950s, when the federal government still aggressively prosecuted the sale of pornographic material through the postal mail and full frontal nudity was banned.  During this period, magazines like the pocket-sized Tomorrow’s Man, published and edited by the homosexual nutritionist and fitness expert Irvin Johnson, began doing gangbusters business among male readers.

Tomorrow’s Man featured the work of some of the finest gay physique photographers of the time, men like Earle Forbes and Lon Hannigan, as well as articles on diet and nutrition from Johnson, who claimed to have invented the earliest protein supplements.  For Johnson, the magazine was a labor of love; for Weider, who was neither a homosexual nor at base particularly interested in nutrition or even fitness, its audience represented another market to be exploited.  In short order, Weider was ripping off Tomorrow’s Man and muscle enthusiast Bob Mizer’s all-illustration, no-content Physique Pictorial with trashy, exploitative, and extremely lucrative offerings such as Demi-Gods and The Young Physique. In an extraordinarily homophobic article published in a 1957 issue of Bob Hoffman’s exercise-oriented Strength and Health magazine, York Barbell weightlifter Harry Paschall excoriated all of these publications but singled out Weider’s offerings as particularly worthy of scorn:

We agree…that the Weider publication Demi-Gods (along with its sister magazine The Young Physique) sets a new low in the sordid world of the queer books. The menace of these homosexual magazines is more serious than ever before, and the cause of clean physical culture threatened by peddlers of pornography.

As David Chapman and Brett Josef Grubisic explained in their excellent pictorial history American Hunks: The Muscular Male Body in Popular Culture, 1860-1970, not all of this material was created equal–and Weider’s publications were of a far lower standard of workmanship than those of his competitors, most likely because he was only in it for the money.  By the time the feds moved against his offerings, Weider had already departed for the bigger time:  peddling the tanned, greased-up, and extraordinarily “camp” monstrosities who would owe their fortunes to his patronage.

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Here, then, is where Joe Weider worked his worst mischief.  He, like Vince McMahon, seized control of an admittedly silly but strangely profitable little industry that was ripe for the plucking.  To accomplish this, he first commodified the male body.

But in so commodifying it, he alienated the male body from any conceivable function that it could perform.  He took the male body away from the homosexual photographers who had, from the time of Eugen Sandow’s arrival on American shores at the turn of the century, succeeded at glorifying it in heretofore unimaginable ways.  Instead of beauty, Weider offered them cheap filth, the sort of material that, taken to its logical conclusion, culminates in the truly depressing (see the above NSFW Kai Greene link, wherein–spoiler alert!–he has sex with a grapefruit).  To the weightlifters in Bob Hoffman’s York Barbell camp, the men who won gold medal after gold medal at world lifting championships, he replaced their actual strength with the mere illusion of strength (“train for form and strength will follow!”).  And for the rest of the men who in one way or another reacted to bodybuilding culture–and how could you not, when all of the notable 1980s action heroes (save Bruce Willis) and 1980s pro wrestlers (save Dusty Rhodes) were beefcake caricatures?–he gave them an aspirational image, beamed out along supermarket checkout aisles throughout the land, to which no reasonable person, male or female, should ever want to aspire.

Then he sold those men a bunch of junky products and flour pills that he claimed would replicate the effects produced by chemical substances developed via legitimate scientific research.  Then he assured them, in a manner redolent of Charles Atlas’ old “The Insult that Made a Man Out of Mac” advertisements, that other men would submit to  their newfound muscles and women would swoon over them (insofar as women were involved in any of this  muscle-building business at all; as noted in “The Power and the Gory,” Paul Solotaroff’s account of the steroid-fueled rise of 1970s bodybuilding icon Steve Michalik, women were frequently cast aside in favor of an extra hour or two to lavish on “back day”).  Then he died at age 93, wealthy beyond my wildest imaginings, and this quagmire was the legacy he left us.

I have no deep insight regarding the identity groups that have acted against this nonsense–as, e.g., with the gay “bear” subculture described in loving terms by Andrew Sullivan in the virtual pages of Salon–or the individuals who operate outside of it, examples of which can be found in worthwhile pieces from Noah Brand, Josh Magill, and Margitte Kristjansson that have been published by this magazine.  No deep insight, but an abiding faith that this monolithic and stupid cultural practice will wither away, as so many others have, leaving behind little trace beyond a series of incomprehensible images of those Weiderian hulks who once walked, or at the very least lumbered, across the surface of this earth.

TTFN, Papa Joe!

Featured Photo–Wikipedia

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About Oliver Lee Bateman

Good Men Project contributing editor Oliver Lee Bateman is a columnist for Al-Jazeera America and Made Man Magazine. His writing has been featured in Salon, The Atlantic, Johnny America, Stymie: A Journal of Sport and Literature, the U.S. Intellectual History Blog, STIR Journal, Mic.com, and NAP Magazine. He is also one of the founders of the Moustache Club of America and Penny & Farthing, two blogzines specializing in flash fiction and creative nonfiction that he co-curates with web developer Erik Hinton, medical consultant Nathan Zimmerman, and freelance writers Christie Chapman and J. R. Powell. Oliver is a lawyer as well as an assistant professor at the University of Texas at Arlington. Follow him on Twitter @MoustacheClubUS or on Google+.

Comments

  1. If women always said the dress and use makeups not for men, just for themselves, I will say this too:

    I workout and lift weights not for women, just for myself. So I dont care if most girls said they dont like muscle and prefer chubby or skinny guys. I just feel more healthy, strong, comfortable, and confident in my fit and athletic bodies, so I workout.

  2. Josh Magill says:

    My wife says she “likes a man with meat on his bones,” but I know she wouldn’t mind me being thinner. I believe she is okay with the chubbier me to ward of the possibility of cheating. In my younger days, I was like John (above comment) working out for myself because I liked it, but it wasn’t with a lot of weights, more running. I hope to regain a slender, somewhat muscular frame once again, but not “hulkish.” Yet, to some that “hulkish” look gives them confidence. I have a cousin this way and I still respect him.

    • I also run, and swim, not just lifting. But I have to inform you, just lifting weights wont immediately turn you “hulkish” like bodybuilders. They take steroids and growth hormones, and they train hard for years to get that kind of body.

    • I dont think women like chubby men. They may just say that because their husbands happen to be chubby. But if the same woman were to cheat, it would probably be with a lean fit looking tall guy.

      I think there is only one type of male body that is genuinely desirable to women

  3. Great article, Oliver! This is a nice counterpoint to Arnie’s book…!

    I am dismayed when I read about all the powders and magic elixirs and supplements in all the fitness magazines I read daily while on the treadmill….I guess it is true that there is “a sucker born every minute”….

    I agree with John’s comments above…fitness sometimes starts with something simple as just the basics and building a daily routine…little steps can lead to bigger steps later….My father’s best friend in HK used to live in the same building as Bruce Lee many, many years ago…and he used to see him do his kung fu exercises every morning in the parking lot….

  4. I’ve never ubderstood the appeal if the freakishly oversized body builders. It seems like a disorder. The same way anorexics see emaciated bodies with hollow cheeks and protruding bones as beautiful, so too body builders must see these inflated cartoonish bodies as gorgeous representations of an ideal form.

    • The thing is, making their body “appealing” is not the aims of bodybuilders, especially the hardcores and professionals. Its hard to explain. If you follow bodybuilding scene, all those top bodybuilders have massive fan base, mostly males. Its like a football club. They compete in stage and win lots of money. That’s why I never think of bodybuilding as a beauty contest, because its not. Its a sport. It never aims to create “hot” or “sexy” body to make women lust, not. And you would never understand the appeal of it if youre not into it yourself.

      • Yeah, bodybuilding is a sport… well, a competition, at least. Like figure skating, at least. In power-lifting I get judged on if I squatted, bench pressed or dead lifted more than the other guys in my weight class and in judo I get judged on if I completed more valid throws on a guy (or got lucky and scored ippon). In bodybuilding a guy works hard on size, thickness and symmetry of his muscles to impress judges based on those qualities like a figure skater or gymnast works to impress based on his or her routines.

  5. Oliver Lee Bateman says:

    Here are two quotes that I left out of the original piece, but which are fascinating nonetheless:

    “While the swimmer and the bicyclist shave to cut down on drag, on air or water resistance, the bodybuilder shaves to make sure his body is seen without obstruction. His performance lies in being looked at, ogled, appraised. For these modern-day coxcombs, using the theatricality of the street as their backdrop, the stare is the ultimate reward. It’s a reversal of sex roles, with the builder taking a traditionally female role: body as object. To be ‘buff’ or ‘buffed’ means literally polished–not like people but furniture. Every movement of the bodybuilder is a self-conscious presentation and display. Take the distinctive and dramatic walk of the bodybuilder, the weightlifter’s waddle of muscles on parade. With the elbows held wide from the body, thighs spread far apart, the walk is as stylized, as preening, as a model’s flounce down the runway.”
    Samuel Fussell, “Bodybuilder Americanus” (Fussell is the guy in the first bodybuilding picture in the piece, and the link on his name leads you to this article)

    “There is a curiously asexual quality discernable in the advanced muscularity of the bodybuilder’s physique and it could be argued that this is a central element in the symbolic language of the developed body. It is not so much that the body is here devoid of sexual connotations, as that it combines in a unique fashion elements of both male and female sexuality.”
    Kenneth Dutton, “The Perfectible Body”

    Gilbert Martinez’s art makes this point, too: http://sargeslocker.blogspot.com/2010/10/have-fielded-several-queries-about.html?zx=89ef2a8d99213534 (NSFW)

Trackbacks

  1. [...] “juicer” with a body of immense proportions, McMahon was inspired by the work of Joe Weider’s International Federation of Bodybuilders to create a roster of pumped-up strongmen with made-up (and trademarked) names and superpowers.4 [...]

  2. [...] Read more posts in this series:  Joe Weider and the Creation of the Perfect Male Body [...]

  3. […] by McGraw.  Male and female bodies can be attractive at any size, and anything that smacks of a Joe Weider-ian “house style”–even one partially selected by women–ought to be challenged and criticized.  For a […]

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