World Development Report 2012: Gender, Equality, and Men’s Education?

A look at how men’s education is portrayed in the World Development Report 2012 on Gender and Equality and where the report fails.

The World Development Report (WDR) 2012 has recently been released, documenting the state of Gender Equality and Development around the world. The WDR is a yearly report documenting the state of development around the world, and it is put out by the World Bank (WB). The report attempts to tackle a vast array of topics and attempts to address the state of gender equality around the globe. Having taken on this difficult and weighty task, the team of authors has collected data from various sources, striving to provide a detailed and concrete picture of where progress has been made, and where further future progress is still needed.

The report states there are four priority areas that it focuses on. These are: “Reducing excess female mortality and closing education gaps where they remain; Improving access to economic opportunities for women; Increasing women’s voice and agency in the household and in society; and Limiting the reproduction of gender inequality across generations.” (WDR, 2012, 36). The report sees the state of women as having drastically improved, but argues that large social changes are still required before gender equality is reached.

The report asserts that in most areas concerning gender equality, women and girls are still considerably behind men and boys. The one area in which boys fall behind is in education. “Everywhere in the world, repetition and, to a lesser extent, dropout rates [in education] are higher among boys than among girls.” (WDR, 2012, 76). Boys face a wide range of challenges that lead to lower achievement rates in education. A recent program identifies the fact that some masculine identities push men and boys away from academic performance (WDR, 2012, 112). Cultural norms often distance men from academic success, often “identifying education as primarily a “female” endeavor… [causing boys to] withdraw from school.” (WDR, 2012, 76).

The issue of men and boys in education is crucial to the cause of gender equality for a multitude of reasons. Increases in education levels, for both boys and girls, is a strong determinant towards progress and social improvement. Beyond this, education for men specifically is also decisive in the overall push towards gender equality. “Surveys suggest that better educated men are more likely to put more time into domestic roles and care giving, perhaps because education changes norms and weakens stereotypes and because more educated men have higher incomes, which may affect their ability or inclination to challenge norms.” (WDR, 2012, 173).

Viewing these two details together, a clear picture emerges of just how serious the state of men’s education is. If it is true that men who are more educated are more likely to challenge norms and participate in domestic roles and caregiving, but men’s overall achievement rate in education is declining; then it would seem logical to assume that there will be a decrease in men’s involvement in challenging norms, and increased resistance to men sharing in the domestic or care giving roles. This decline in men’s desire to participate in domestic and care giving roles, and lowered commitment to changing gender norms, is a movement away from gender equality.

While the report recognizes lower men’s achievement in education as well as the fact that an increase in men’s education levels leads to more men challenging gender norms, it does nothing to resolve or address this issue. In the movement towards gender equality, this seems like an issue that deserves attention. The four priorities that the report sets out leave no room for this issue to be tackled to the extent needed. By fixating on women and girls as the sole agents, and recipients, of work on gender equality, men are excluded almost entirely. In their overall exclusion of men, and lack of focus on men’s education, the World Development Report, and the World Bank, is in some ways perpetuating systemic gender inequality.

Men’s involvement in the fight for gender equality is vital. Although the report seems to recognize this, in statements such as “it is necessary to work with both men and women to break harmful gender norms” (WDR, 2012, 336), it does almost nothing to capitalize on this matter. Throughout the report, men are given only a cursory mention, often as an afterthought to the clear primary concern, women.

In working towards gender equality, the importance of men’s education cannot be understated, and this issue must be addressed for a movement towards gender equality to succeed. Men’s education and men’s involvement in the struggle for gender equality is of utmost importance, which this report does not address, let alone suggest or support reform of the area.

References:

The World Bank (2012) World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development, Washington DC: The World Bank. Available at http://go.worldbank.org/CQCTMSFI40. [Accessed October 2011]

—Photo by Frank G. Karioris

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About Frank G. Karioris

Frank has just completed an MA in Social Development, and is currently working as a research assistant on issues of men in relation to gender equality programs and development. He has a background in history and education, and is an avid reader.

Comments

  1. David Byron says:

    The article makes sense once you realise that “gender equality” is code for “female supremacy”.

    For example it makes no sense for all the issues of “gender equality” to be improving things for women and girls at the expense of men and boys even where women are already ahead.

    For example it makes no sense for men doing badly in education to be relevant to “gender equality” only in terms of how it impacts women.

    This is what is meant by institutional sex discrimination – gender apartheid – against men. And it is wrapped up in Orwellian phrases where discrimination is equality, prejudice is fairness and addressing one gender only is presented always as if it was a discussion of both. Men are made completely invisible and at the same time told they are the oppressors instead of the fact that they are being victimised.

    • Exactly.
      The amount of doublethink and self-delusion that would be required to be a feminist and still support gender equality boggles the mind.
      Feminism is probably the only group in the world where you can blame all of lifes problems and inconveniences on a shadowy conspiracy of men that has existed since the dawn of history and not be considered a tinfoil hat-wearing lunatic.

      • Peter Houlihan says:

        As always, depends on the feminist. But I agree that theres a thick streak of misandry running through most feminist dialogues.

    • In simple feminist mathematical equation,
      ∀ Gender equality (Geq) holds goods if it satisfies the condition f(x) > m(x), where f denotes the female function and m denotes the male function, and x denotes a variable of success.

  2. David Byron says:

    Seriously this report makes an issue of women’s longevity while noting that women live longer than men do everywhere on earth. It makes an issue of women’s further education while noting that women are ahead almost everywhere on earth (mainly the exception is countries where basically nobody gets to go to university anyway). It makes an issue of discrimination against the “women” who were never born. And an issue of the stupid wage gap myth that they admit is bs.

    So basically it is a feminist hit piece put out by an imperialist economic oppression office. This alliance between feminism and imperialism happens a lot. It’s obviously completely insincere of course. Why would anyone bother with an alleged and fraudulent gender wage gap when they are perfectly fine with workers earning 500 times less than bosses? Obviously nobody at the World Bank cares about these “issues” really so what’s actually going on here?

    In terms of “equality” feminism is terrific for the elites. Hey lets all focus laser-like on a completely pointless and essentially fictitious set of “issues” which can never ever be solved (because they don’t actually exist in large part). That’s terrific for the elites because every person signing on with feminism ends up tilting at windmills instead of noticing the obvious source of inequalities in the world — which is class based. Hey should I worry that workers get paid 500 times less than bosses? Oh look over here! Women are getting paid 20% less than men when they work 20% less than men. Sexist!

    It’s like the bunko booth games played by democratic parties in countries where every party represents only the interests of the wealthy. You interested in politics? Do I have a deal for you! You have a choice of corporate party 1 or corporate party 2. Just make sure all your political or egalitarian impulses are channeled into elite approved actions.

    You know what the earliest men’s rights groups were? Labor unions. Working men getting together to demand rights for themselves. You see the World Bank saying we need more unions? The men’s movement had to be crushed because addressing the needs of men actually upset the apple cart in a world of male disposability. Demands for safer work conditions or shorter work hours or more pay. Feminism in contrast works to increase the labor force which depresses wages (one of the big issues they go on about in this report is how women are not YET working full time as much as men outside the home).

    Feminists love to pretend their movement is radical or rebellious or something but the early men’s movement was crushed with soldiers and guns. The feminists have become part of the establishment. Why? Because feminism helps imperialism and the early men’s movement was a huge threat to it.

    If you are on the left and you are a feminist then the long list of imperialist institutions backing feminism to the hilt OUGHT to give you pause for thought. Does it?

  3. I don’t know if there’s any correlation…but the decline in men’s education – didn’t that come around the same time as the rise in popularity of hip hop and rap music? Majority are black artists and most of them dropped out of school, but not many people know that these black artists actually excelled in school and only dropped out to pursue a music career. They have smarts and talent. But who knows the numbers of wanna bes that aren’t successful at breaking through in this tough industry. And just from observation, it seems the most concentration of successful blacks are predominately in the entertainment industry (music and movies) and in sports like basketball – where education doesn’t seem a priority to become famous and rich. Having a first black president in the United States, Obama, should reinvigorate aspirations to excel academically.

    I think diverse representations of all races and gender in different roles/jobs do help inspire people and even out disparities. Everything makes an impression, sometimes long-lasting impression which keep certain groups/gender oppressed; because what we see in media/entertainment and out in the real world forms an opinion of ourselves for the better or for the worse. That’s why certain countries understand how powerful these vehicles are, and why their government controls all that. So my hope is that people who own these media/entertainment outlets use them wisely in our democratic country. They form “movements” and greatly influence people, but which may appear undetectable or nuanced…but have long-term effects for better or for worse.

    • Peter Houlihan says:

      “I don’t know if there’s any correlation…but the decline in men’s education – didn’t that come around the same time as the rise in popularity of hip hop and rap music?”

      O.O Did you actually just attribute male academic underperformance to hip-hop? I agree that ethnic stereotypes in the media are an issue, but come on, those issues have been around a little longer than the 1980s.

      • MichelleG says:

        I don’t know what is wrong with some men. For every men’s issue, the finger gets pointed at feminists/women and negate other possibilities. I would love to support men, but I refuse to support irrationality and misogyny. Honestly, most of men’s issues are caused by other men (this is the truth), but this doesn’t compute with men in general because that is akin to pointing the fingers at themselves…and most men won’t stand for that. Because this would mean men have to look inwards to find the answers to their own problems. Hallelujah for GMP.

        Men have been exploiting people and this earth for thousands of years, there’s sexual exploitation of men and women in the military, sex trade exploitation, slavery – you name it; exploiting and blaming feminists for ALL of your problems makes hell of a lot of sense? Of course it does, in the minds of narcissists.

        Stereotypes have also been around as long as the issues. Stereotypes do evolved into other stereotypes you know? They just get replaced by others. Stereotypes encourage disparities and biases. it limits job opportunities and advancements; it pigeon holes you into neat little compartments and thus creates hierarchy for the benefit of some and the detriment of others.

        I think the actual decline in education started with black slavery 100 years ago. Don’t you think? Back then, if you were black, the stereotype you had was as a slave, with jobs as housekeepers, childcare providers, gardeners, laborers…. Fast forward to today, maybe there still aren’t equal job opportunities despite having proper education, so the younger generations of blacks sees this and become disillusioned and foregoing education altogether. Higher education is costly you know? Most blacks and other minorities are impoverished, so they have to work much harder in everything – perhaps if they can see a reason for higher education applied in the real world, they would pursue it much more? Perhaps it would help to have equality and diverse representations of races employed in different jobs, and wealth more evenly distributed? Would all this encourage higher education?

        • “most of men’s issues are caused by other men” So some are caused by women right? There is legitimate reason to question some feminist organizations if they have a clear bias just as it is with bias anywhere.

          In the U.S there are 8million more women than men who vote, that is quite a bit of power in itself, half my own countries population. So be mindful with your votes, as you do play a part and have responsibility along with men in society and politics.

          • MichelleG says:

            “most of men’s issues are caused by other men” So some are caused by women right?

            No, I’m not saying that either. But from the posts on here, many MRAs perceive the advances from feminists and gain in women’s rights somehow unbalanced their own power, so they blame women for this and this/feminists becomes a “men’s issue”. Actually in that case then it seems ALL men’s issues lead back and point back to men, the ones that run everything from our country to corporations and are the majority of stockholders and stakeholders in everything.

            “In the U.S there are 8million more women than men who vote, ”

            That actually says a lot about the men who don’t vote…as women and men are 50/50 of the population. Voting works from the top down…the real nitty gritty work is bottoms-up…legislations can only do so much; human behaviors and attitudes, culture are the toughest to change. Anyway, when women vote and when women lead, changes happen, real work on real issues get a voice and addressed…they’re the ones to tell you where all the BS lies:

            http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/62902/20100916/sex-traffic.htm

            More than 100,000 children are exploited in the sex trade in the United States every year. “That’s according to conservative estimates,” Linda Smith, a former Congresswoman and the founder and president of Shared Hope International, told a Congressional committee hearing Wednesday.

            She said Congress could start dealing with this “national crisis” by passing H.R. 5575, the “Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking Deterrence and Victims Support Act of 2010,” which was introduced by Congresswoman Carolyn Maloney, D-NY, and Congressman Chris Smith.

            “Without a buyer of commercial sex, there would not be a market for trafficked victims,” she said. “In nearly every case the child rather than the buyer is arrested.”

            • Well from what I heard, only feminist groups were invited to the table to discuss updating the definition of rape yet envelopment gets left out, some reports on rape partly done by women or feminists also have that bias.

              “when women vote and when women lead, changes happen, real work on real issues get a voice and addressed…they’re the ones to tell you where all the BS lies: ”
              Do men not make good decisions? Are you going to argue women make better decisions than men? It’s funny that they aren’t telling us where the BS is in feminism, yet MRA’s gladly find the BS and point it out, even egalitarians point it out. Anyone thinking feminism is perfect is delusional, it’s a group like all others and some in the group abuse the name

              “No, I’m not saying that either. But from the posts on here, many MRAs perceive the advances from feminists and gain in women’s rights somehow unbalanced their own power, so they blame women for this and this/feminists becomes a “men’s issue””
              For one, females are to blame for female on male rape, and they share a responsibility in rape and abuse, violence, it’s not all caused by men. In some areas it could be argued that feminism has unbalanced the power, why do SO MANY mra’s talk about how gender biased VAWA is and how male victims of DV are up that creek without a paddle with it?
              ht tp://www.avoiceformen.com/feminism/feminist-lies-feminism/violence-against-women-act-do-the-rights-of-men-matter/

              You are trying to remove all agency from women, you act like women are powerless and do no wrong in the world, it’s offensive as hell. Women are a part of society and add to the problems just like men do, radical feminists spout hatred towards men yet you rarely hear of other feminists calling them out on it, studies are made that look at the bad women face and ignore the bad men face, this one hear even doesn’t seem to want to talk about the education gap or how men die earlier than women.

              Constantly ignoring male issues whilst promoting awareness for female issues under the guise of gender equality IS a problem against men, by feminism. Even domestic violence stats vary more than fashions do, yet how many shelters are there for men vs women? Yes women fought for domestic violence shelters, but they did it under the banner of violence against WOMEN and ignored the violence against the men. Ignoring the violence against men, ignoring that women too cause violence just adds to the problems MEN face.

              There is currently something called “The Plan” in Australia by a feminist group trying to promote gendered and biased lawmaking, it makes me sick. What’s worse is that my government will probably listen to them and bring them in, why does a group try to push biased laws under the banner of gender equality if not to harm the other gender or seek benefits for their own gender above the other?

              I see feminists want to beleive NO feminist advocates badly and that feminism never harms men, but what happens when it does? What happens when this heavy focus ove womens issues simply ignores male issues? Hell, talk about the male issues and you’ll cop a whataboutthemenz insult, be told you hate women, and a bunch of other diversion tactics. I know not all feminists do that, but it’s silly to assume none do it, there are bad feminists and very bad actions which harm feminism’s name and for a very good reason.

              Maybe instead of being hyper-defensive over feminism, you could actually listen to the mra’s and find out why they think that power is being abused. And no, I am not an MRA, I sit on the fence between feminism n mra n watch both sides do both good n bad things and call it out where I see it. Trusting gender equality only to feminists is hit n miss, some want gender equality and some want special privileges above men and domestic violence n rape awareness seems to have quite a few calls for special privileges.

              Also I do support methods to get rid of sex trafficking, I also support legal prostitution when there are adequate safety measures, both together would help combat that crisis.

        • Michelle, you are simply incorrect about the data. Please go read Whitmire and get your facts right before you decide this is all just a question of race and not gender. Heck, look at Lori Day’s excellent piece here on GMP for some more background if you need it.

          This is a major issue among rich, white suburban boys too, as the data well show.

          And as far the African-Americans go, 2 AfAm women go to college for every AfAm man who does, which is why Oprah is over the moon upset about the situation.

          Wake up.

        • DavidByron says:

          I’m a man and I haven’t been exploiting people and this earth for thousands of years. Maybe you’d make more sense if you threw out all the garbage ideology.

          • MichelleG says:

            http://www.increasebrainpower.com/lower-iq.html

            Other Things that Cause Lower IQ Scores

            [Quote] I also think that there are many “personal problems” that result in less-powerful thinking. These include arguing excessively, which causes one to get “set” in ones thinking. Egotism in general also limits ones thinking capacity, as it makes proving ones ideas more important than looking at new data and evidence for other ideas. [End quote]

        • “I think the actual decline in education started with black slavery 100 years ago. Don’t you think? Back then, if you were black, the stereotype you had was as a slave, with jobs as housekeepers, childcare providers, gardeners, laborers…” You do know that there was no slavery in 1912, it kind of was abolished with the end of the Civil War in the US.

          Why the continued conflation of lowered educational results for males and black men in the United States? This report was global and focused on the developing world. Blacks are not the minority in Africa, for example. Nor are non-whites minorities anywhere except in some parts of the developed world. I think you need to go back and read the article again…

          • MichelleG says:

            I’m well aware the report is global…but i know many Americans have the attitude that we should be helping people in our own backyard before we go help people in other countries. It is hard for some to imagine the plights of people faraway, when they have their own to problems to deal with right on our own soil. I often see commenters here tend to posts stuff related to westernized countries (U.S. Canada et al) anyway.

            There wouldn’t be a blanket solution for every country globally, as political, social and economic systems and history varies from country to country and need to be solved case by case. There are basic human rights which most would agree upon, so countries and politicians could start with that.

            100 years is not long ago, to expect blacks to catch up in the education gap pronto; also feminist movement happened shortly after that – so of course girls are graduating more due to that movement. I think if we analyze history, politics and all these different systems, they could give answers and solutions.

    • While there are black men that do make the presumption that giving up on education and trying to get into pro sports or the music industry that alone does not explain why there is a disparity in education between boys and girls in nearly every race. (Even among whites (in the US at least) girls still outperform boys.) And it doesn’t even explain that disparity among black girls and boys.

      I don’t know what is wrong with some men. For every men’s issue, the finger gets pointed at feminists/women and negate other possibilities. I would love to support men, but I refuse to support irrationality and misogyny. Honestly, most of men’s issues are caused by other men (this is the truth), but this doesn’t compute with men in general because that is akin to pointing the fingers at themselves…and most men won’t stand for that. Because this would mean men have to look inwards to find the answers to their own problems. Hallelujah for GMP.
      No the reason some men point the finger at feminism/women is because there are some feminists/women that regularly claim to be “the one movement” for true equality for all people and when men try to interact with them with that goal in mind and end up getting trashed they get ill. And even after we get trashed and move on we still get condescended to by feminists who think the only reason someone can possibly disagree with them is through unprovoked preeixsiting hatred of them. But nevermind that.

      What I wonder is though when it comes to men talking about men’s issues why is there always a desire to hurry up and say that they are caused by other men? Is it because women are afriad of taking responsibility for the role that they play in it? Like Archy says women are the majority of voters so why haven’t you’ll put in a female president yet?

      And actually what I really find odd is that ther person you’re responding to (Peter) didn’t day anything about blaiming women/feminists. Did you mean to reply that to DB?

      Now as for the rest of what you say about how black people can be discouraged in the pursuit of education (its expensive, it takes time to get a degree and a better paying job when you need money NOW, etc…) makes sense.

      Perhaps it would help to have equality and diverse representations of races employed in different jobs, and wealth more evenly distributed? Would all this encourage higher education?
      Yes it would because if nothing else it would breed hope. Hope that since things are changing for the better maybe they can get into higher education, and therefore higher positions in life.

      • MichelleG says:

        “And actually what I really find odd is that ther person you’re responding to (Peter) didn’t day anything about blaiming women/feminists. Did you mean to reply that to DB?”

        Sorry I started off addressing Peter’s post regarding stereotyping, but then added all the MRA observations on top because I didn’t feel like splitting up the post and cutting and pasting. lol.

  4. John Sctoll says:

    “Missing” Girls: that is a new category I think. When I read it, of course I assumed (bad me) that it means the girls friends and family did not know where she was, i.e. kidnapped, etc. Nope , it means if a girl isn’t born she is missing, if she dies early due to lack of medical care she is missing.

    What I can’t figure out is how these people figured that a large group of girls SHOULD have lived and didn’t just die naturally. Did they compare it to the number of missing men I wonder, I doubt it.

  5. The world is changing. Attitudes are slowly but surely changing…movements create change.

    Girls are excelling over boys, because it’s obvious we are breaking stereotypes of females being in the kitchen and child-bearing, homemakers with no need for education. Girls growing up today know that this is a different world than the ones their mothers and grandmothers lived in. Girls know that most men won’t be there to support them as housewives when they grow up and married; and both men and women expect girls to have careers when they grow up and be fully independent…this truism rings loud and clear. Financial independence is a real incentive and to study hard and excel school and have decent jobs or if lucky enough, a real career, afterward. Being educated and financially independent are really empowering and should also help females find better partners, and better able to contribute and support a family.

    • That is not a truism. Please look up truism.
      While greater education undoubtedly has, is, and will continue to be a boon to girls and women, you have totally missed the point of this article. “Being educated and financially independent are really empowering and should also help females find better partners, and better able to contribute and support a family.” This would also help the boys and men that are falling behind in terms of educational development, don’t you think? If we can stop that awful rap music that is…;)

  6. Well the first requirement to understanding these reports (this one as well the World Gender Gap Report) is to make sure you know that “gender equality” = “make sure women/girls aren’t getting the short end of the stick”. Once you get a firm grasp on that it becomes pretty clear how and why actual mention of the condition of men/boys gets left by the way side while at the same time telling men/boys that they need to do their part to help women.

    It comes off like a rehash of chivialry. Expect men/boys to put all their effort into helping girls/women to their own detrement.

  7. I’m of mind that country music is the real culprit to the male educational gap. Seriously, who feels like lifting a finger in any direction after listening to just one country music song?

    • DavidByron says:

      Music to commit suicide to!

    • MichelleG says:

      I’m glad to see heavy metal is not mainstream anymore…i remember hearing teenagers committed suicides and violence due to some of their sadistic lyrics. And that whole culture was into drugs… I suppose getting high and all that headbanging helps with raising one’s IQ?

      • MichelleG says:

        Actually, this raises another important insight…DRUGS…who does the most drugs, men or women??? We all know drugs fry brains! That should be another explanation in the education gender gap! lol.

        • LOL? Insight? More like an idea you didn’t bother to check the validity of but still presented as an important fact puntiated by an inapproate lol. Surely you are trolling.

          • Here you go:

            http://news.bioscholar.com/2011/12/brain-abnormalities-behind-teens%E2%80%99-cannabis-use.html

            Brain abnormalities behind teens’ cannabis use

            Thursday, December 15th, 2011

            Australian scientists have for the first time found the brain abnormalities that make teenagers more likely to smoke cannabis.

            The study of more than 100 Melbourne teens also confirmed that cannabis harms the brain, adding weight to a raft of previous research on damage caused by long-term use of the drug.

            Researchers from Monash and Melbourne universities took high-tech images of the brains of 155 primary school students when they were 12.

            Four years later when they reached their milestone 16th birthday, the students were asked whether they had used cannabis.

            Of 121 who responded, 28 admitted to using the drug.

            When the researchers checked the scans taken when those students were 12, they found a part of the frontal lobe area in their brains was smaller than those in teens who steered clear of cannabis.

            Lead researcher Prof Dan Lubman said the students with abnormalities in the orbitofrontal cortex – the brain region involved in memory, reward and decision making – were more prone to using cannabis.

            “What we found is that only the orbitofrontal cortex predicted later cannabis use, suggesting that this particular part of the frontal lobe increases an adolescent”s vulnerability to cannabis use,” the Herald Sun quoted him as saying.

            The study is the first to examine whether existing brain abnormalities have a role in whether teens start using cannabis.

            The finding was published online by the journal Biological Psychiatry.

      • The event you’re referring to- the trial James Vance v Judas Priest was dismissed, and one of the band’s members has been quoted saying that if they (Judas Priest) were actually going to put subliminal messages into their music “kill yourself” would be a pretty stupid message. “Buy more of our records” would be much more suitable.

  8. Congratulations to GMP for running this piece, and to Frank Karioris for his intelligent and nuanced critique. I lived and worked for several years in Nepal and New Guinea and know first hand the oppression of women in those societies as well as the enormous importance of education for girls in alleviating it. Whatever its shortcomings, the World Bank has played a vital role around the world in improving women’s lives. Moreover, it is very clear that as women receive better educations, men live better lives as well.

    It is unfortunate to see in some of the responses to this article the tendency to frame the issue in black OR white, either/or terms: either they win and we lose, or we win and they lose. Things are not so simple and it does neither sex any favors to see it that way. Improvement in women’s lives rarely if ever comes at the price of the quality of men’s lives.The reality is that full equality for women cannot be achieved by women alone. Indeed, this is at the heart of Karioris’ criticism of the World Development Report: if the job is seen only as a “women’s problem,” then in the long run, we men will suffer. This does not mean that men must become simply a “men’s auxiliary” to the women’s movement. Rather, strong women require strong men as equals. And this means that we men have our own work to do as well. In a world of strong and equal women, what does it require of us men?

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