Strategic objective E.2.
Reduce excessive military expenditures and control the availability of armaments
Actions to be taken
143. By Governments:
c. Take action to investigate and punish members of the police, security and armed forces and others who perpetrate acts of violence against women, violations of international humanitarian law and violations of the human rights of women in situations of armed conflict;
Beijing Declaration (1995)
Paragraph 143 deals with military expenditures and the actions of government entities, of governments and associated institutions. The call for the reduction in the military expenditures of the world can be problematic because governments have placed a specific portion or an apportionment of the military expenditure on the “things we want” list.
It takes consistent and firm demands on the part of the international community to make commitments themselves and to pressure other governments, from the international level, for the reduction of the military expenditures around the world. One of the big problems is the ways in which this can be ignored if a country is obstinate or powerful enough.
However, for the improvement in the livelihoods of women, there will need to be examinations of the crimes of police, security, and armed forces, even the United Nations has been called out in some recent incidences of sexual assaults and rapes by personnel set with peaceful tasks. Other acts or perpetrations of violence against women should be dealt with, but through the rule of law and actions of the governments – as per this call. A relatively straightforward paragraph for this one.
- The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in the Preamble, Article 16, and Article 25(2).
- Convention Against Discrimination in Education (1960) in Article 1.
- The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) in Article 3, Article 7, and Article 13.
- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966).
- Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1979).
- Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1984).
- The Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women and the optional protocol (1993).
- Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (1995), Five-year review of progress (2000), 10-year review in 2005, the 15-year review in 2010, and the 20-year review in 2015.
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000), and the UN Security Council additional resolutions on women, peace and security: 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009), 1889 (2009), 1960 (2010), 2106 (2013), 2122 (2013), and 2242 (2015).
- Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (2000).
- The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa or the “Maputo Protocol” (2003).
- Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence or the Istanbul Convention (2011) Article 38 and Article 39.
- UN Women’s strategic plan, 2018–2021
- 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
- 2015 agenda with 17 new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (169 targets for the end to poverty, combatting inequalities, and so on, by 2030). The SDGs were preceded by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) from 2000 to 2015.
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Led by: Scott Douglas Jacobsen and Amanda Vining
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