From the bison of the Americas to the antelope and beeste of Africa.
The mid latitudes of Europe were no exception, the now tame and domesticated landscape was once grazed by the mighty auroch and a giant though now extinct species of deer.
In turn the wolf, lynx and bear laid in wait for these denizens of the great grass seas.
In these straightened times the ecology is tied down with fences and cut deeply by roads, the wildness replaced with monoculture and brick.
Yet, in a few corners, the happy coexistence of man and free beast remains.
Here on the mountain is one such place.
For hundreds of kilometres horse, mule, cattle and goat move without thought of boundary or restriction.
They move with the diurnal and anual cycles of the earth.
They are free in their wildness and in return they create a topiaried ecology of great beauty.
The luxuriant herb rich turf is kept open and fed by these daily movements. Each seems to find its own place within the mosaic of livingness.
This very beauty is a direct function and a consequence of the inherent freedoms and diversity found here.
There are no boundaries or walls, just uncountable biological bridges between the wild and free citizenry.
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Photo courtesy of the author.