Continental glaciers, or ice sheets, are thick layers of ice which cover more than 50,000 km^2 (9,000 mi^2, or 12.3M acres, or 19 Rhode Islands).
Alpine glaciers are an important bellwether for global climate change, as they are sensitive to a number of factors including mean temperature, precipitation and even pollution (Which affects their albedo).
A glacier is a mass of ice large enough to deform under its own weight.
Its properties vary based on a number of factors such as purity, temperature and pressure.
The cryosphere includes glaciers, both terrestrial and marine, sea ice, permafrost-covered tundra, and the snowy, seasonally frozen regions.
Phytoplankton play an important role in the global carbon cycle, consuming roughly one half of the more than 30 GT (Gigatons) Of carbon dioxide emitted globally each year.
The term eutrophication comes from the roots “eu” = good, and “troph” = food.
Oxygen (O2) is not overly soluble in water.
As inferred by the name “thermohaline” with respect to density-driven currents in the ocean, the main properties of ocean water we measure are temperature and salinity.
The ocean is, with a few exceptions, stratified by density, the least dense on the surface, the densest on the bottom.
The El Nino-Southern Oscillation is a cycle of wind and ocean temperatures in the tropics.
Temperature and salinity are the main factors which determine the density of seawater, and they drive the bulk of vertical water motion in the ocean worldwide.
The fluid of the ocean is constantly in motion, under several different influences.
Hurricanes are massive engines which convert heat to kinetic energy.
A large fully-formed hurricane can span nearly a thousand miles across, though not many reach this size.
A hurricane, known elsewhere around the world as a cyclone or typhoon, is a very large (>300 miles in diameter) rotating storm system with a low-pressure center and circling bands of high wind and rain.