Strategic objective E.2.
Reduce excessive military expenditures and control the availability of armaments
Actions to be taken
143. By Governments:
f. Recognizing the leading role that women have played in the peace movement
i. Work actively towards general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control;
Beijing Declaration (1995)
Women in the peace efforts and disarmament efforts around the world remain some of the most salient and impactful means by which, or actors to, advance reductions in arms and decreases in war. Women simply become more burdened with children and the impacts of war. It means a behavioural and psychological motivation for the reduction in the levels of war around the world.
The question becomes the way to do this. The better – on net – actors in the reduction of war or the increase of peace are women. This emphasis of the Beijing Declaration becomes extremely important. The emphasis within the declaration is one of the highest ideals regarding the levels of arms packed away in stockpiles, known and unknown.
It is the lofty targeted objective of the ultimate complete disarmament of weaponry. However, as we can see, there are over 14,000 nuclear warheads stockpiled now. These are some of the consequences of war and, in particular, a history of a warlike mentality and attempts to dominate particular regions or countries for the purposes of stealing or co-opting the resources, or annexing the land, that is not part of the aggressor state.
We can see this throughout the ore powerful empires, including the American or even with some of the smaller and modern cases seen in Russia and the annexation on ukraine. The argument may be made around the impacts of women leadership on such situations, which, in theory or based on ideological commitments of equality, the results may not be the same.
However, if one looks at the data at the lower ends of the scale, and if one extrapolates to the greater centralizations of power, influence, and money, then I suspect that we can propose women are greater peacemakers on average and, thus, more probable to commit to a reduction in peace over time. This would include the ideological prism behind the notion of women in charge for a furtherance of the peace movement and then the “general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control.”
- The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in the Preamble, Article 16, and Article 25(2).
- Convention Against Discrimination in Education (1960) in Article 1.
- The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) in Article 3, Article 7, and Article 13.
- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966).
- Some general declarations (not individual Declaration or set of them but announcement) included the UN Decade for Women (1976-1985).
- Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1979) and the Optional Protocol (1999).
- Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1984).
- The Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women and the optional protocol (1993).
- Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (1995), Five-year review of progress (2000), 10-year review in 2005, the 15-year review in 2010, and the 20-year review in 2015.
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000), and the UN Security Council additional resolutions on women, peace and security: 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009), 1889 (2009), 1960 (2010), 2106 (2013), 2122 (2013), 2242 (2015), and 2467 (2019).
- Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (2000).
- The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa or the “Maputo Protocol” (2003).
- Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence or the Istanbul Convention (2011) Article 38 and Article 39.
- UN Women’s strategic plan, 2018–2021
- 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, emphasis on the entirety of the goals with a strong focus on Goal 5
- 2015 agenda with 17 new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (169 targets for the end to poverty, combatting inequalities, and so on, by 2030). The SDGs were preceded by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) from 2000 to 2015.
- The Spotlight Initiative as another important piece of work, as a joint venture between the European Union and the United Nations.
- February 6, International Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation is observed.
- February 11, International Day of Women and Girls in Science is observed.
- June 19, Day for the Elimination of Sexual Violence in Conflict is observed.
- June 23, is International Widows’ Day is observed.
- October 11, International Day of the Girl Child is observed.
- October 15, International Day of Rural Women is observed.
- November 25, International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women is observed.
- Gender Inclusive Guidelines, Toolbox, & United Nations System-wide Strategy on Gender Parity.
- Say No, UNiTE, UNiTE to End Violence against Women, Orange the World: #HearMeToo (2018), and the 16 days of activism.
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