Strategic objective E.4.
Promote women’s contribution to fostering a culture of peace
Actions to be taken
146. By Governments, international and regional intergovernmental institutions and non-governmental organizations:
c. Develop and disseminate research on the physical, psychological, economic and social effects of armed conflicts on women, particularly young women and girls, with a view to developing policies and programmes to address the consequences of conflicts;
d. Consider establishing educational programmes for girls and boys to foster a culture of peace, focusing on conflict resolution by non-violent means and the promotion of tolerance.
Beijing Declaration (1995)
The Beijing Declaration, in line with the thrust of the United Nations, works towards the complete installation of the principles of the international community orientation towards peace and security around the world with an emphasis on the contexts for women. Here we look at the largest scope for the international community, we have a focus on the spreading of appropriate information on the full gamut of effects on women in the darkness of war.
They remain the majority of the victims in the contexts of war. They are the majority of the civilian casualties, too. Researchers Murthy and Lakshminarayana stated, “Sixty-two percent of respondents reported experiencing at least four trauma events during the previous ten years. Symptoms of depression were found in 67.7% of respondents, symptoms of anxiety in 72.2%, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 42%. The disabled and women had a poorer mental health status, and there was a significant relationship between mental health status and traumatic events. Coping strategies included religious and spiritual practices.”
War kills. Even though, the ‘killed’ may still be alive and breathing – alive and unwell. War is brutal and gruesome. No heroism necessarily in the acts of puncturing, gouging, blunting, and bludgeoning an enemy with melee and distance weaponry. The physical effects could be death or incapacitation for women. The psychological effects of war on women and men could be the aforementioned.
The social and economic effects could be more traumatic. In that, even after leaving war, they may never reach a state of self-actualization and could lead lives of precarity, of precarious employment and social connects. How does one gain the skills and find the work in the aftermath of war, after the death of loved ones, and so on and so forth?
Here, the facts of war can provide a window into that which is beyond the shadow, past the facade of bravery and adventure with an AK-47 or a combat humvee. The proposed educational programs could be helpful in this. In that, the educational programs could be geared towards a particular population, which would be the girls and boys with an emphasis on peace, cooperation, conflict avoidance or resolution, and the like.
Non-violence and tolerant become the basis for the development of a community sensibility and a sense of a wider world beyond oneself. This is the hope; this is a possibility for lasting peace and an increase in international security. And why not try for it?
- The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in the Preamble, Article 16, and Article 25(2).
- Convention Against Discrimination in Education (1960) in Article 1.
- The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) in Article 3, Article 7, and Article 13.
- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966).
- Some general declarations (not individual Declaration or set of them but announcement) included the UN Decade for Women (1976-1985).
- Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1979) and the Optional Protocol (1999).
- Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1984).
- The Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women and the optional protocol (1993).
- Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (1995), Five-year review of progress (2000), 10-year review in 2005, the 15-year review in 2010, and the 20-year review in 2015.
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000), and the UN Security Council additional resolutions on women, peace and security: 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009), 1889 (2009), 1960 (2010), 2106 (2013), 2122 (2013), 2242 (2015), and 2467 (2019).
- Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (2000).
- The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa or the “Maputo Protocol” (2003).
- Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence or the Istanbul Convention (2011) Article 38 and Article 39.
- UN Women’s strategic plan, 2018–2021
- 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, emphasis on the entirety of the goals with a strong focus on Goal 5
- 2015 agenda with 17 new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (169 targets for the end to poverty, combatting inequalities, and so on, by 2030). The SDGs were preceded by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) from 2000 to 2015.
- The Spotlight Initiative as another important piece of work, as a joint venture between the European Union and the United Nations.
- February 6, International Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation is observed.
- February 11, International Day of Women and Girls in Science is observed.
- June 19, Day for the Elimination of Sexual Violence in Conflict is observed.
- June 23, is International Widows’ Day is observed.
- October 11, International Day of the Girl Child is observed.
- October 15, International Day of Rural Women is observed.
- November 25, International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women is observed.
- Gender Inclusive Guidelines, Toolbox, & United Nations System-wide Strategy on Gender Parity.
- Say No, UNiTE, UNiTE to End Violence against Women, Orange the World: #HearMeToo (2018), and the 16 days of activism.
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